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Brief history and current situation of surrogacy in the world

2022-07-10 19:51 browse:

Surrogacy, as explained in the encyclopedia, refers to the behavior of fertile women who, with the help of modern medical technology, pregnancy and childbirth for others

It can be divided into complete surrogacy, partial surrogacy, free surrogacy and paid surrogacy

The history of human surrogacy can be traced back to the Bible

In genesis, Abraham and his wife Sarah are mentioned

According to records, Sarah is barren

So she said to Abraham, "God won't let me have children, but you can have sex with my maid, and she will have our two children

"

At that time, Abraham was an 86 year old man

According to modern science, Sarah was infertile, which should be the problem of Abraham

But the Bible is the Bible after all, and cannot be understood according to common sense

After Abraham slept with Hagar, Sarah's maid, Hagar became pregnant and gave birth to a child

This is the first child we know who was born using the "traditional scheme" as a surrogate

Miraculously, when Abraham was 100 years old, Sarah was pregnant and gave birth to a child

More miraculously, Jacob, the grandson of Abraham, and his wife also encountered the same problem

Later, they gave birth to two children in the same way

These are the two earlier events about surrogacy in myths and legends

In the modern sense, the technology of real surrogacy originated from the success of the first artificial insemination in 1884, which laid a technical foundation for artificial insemination, an important part of surrogacy in the future

In 1944, Professor John Locke of Harvard Medical School successfully completed the first experiment in human history that eggs were fertilized outside the uterus

In 1953, the University of Iowa research team successfully used frozen sperm for artificial insemination, and the baby was born about three months later

In 1975, the first test tube baby embryo transfer without moral and ethical disputes was successful

In 1976, American lawyer Keane signed the first surrogate contract in history

The surrogate was a traditional surrogate and the surrogate mother did not receive any compensation

At that time, there were four disputes and became the focus of the moment

Keane took this opportunity to set up the Noel Keane infertility center in New York to provide commercial surrogacy legal services for infertile couples who are eager to have children

In 1978, the first test tube baby was born in Britain

1980: the first paid surrogacy agreement came into being

A woman with a pseudonym of Elizabeth received US $10000 as compensation to carry out traditional surrogacy for another couple

In 1982, the first baby using egg donation technology was born

In 1984, the famous "baby m" traditional surrogacy event occurred in the history of surrogacy

At Keane's research center, Mary received $10000 from the stern couple as compensation for becoming a surrogate mother and using her eggs during artificial insemination

After the birth of the child, Mary went back on her words and refused to give the child to Mr

and Mrs

stern

After two years of litigation, the New Jersey higher court ruled in 1986 that the surrogacy agreement had no legal effect and Mary was the mother of the child

But it was decided that the custody of the child belonged to Mr

stern, and Mary had the right to visit the child

In 1985, the first case of pregnancy surrogacy, i

e

test tube baby surrogacy, was successful before the conclusion of the baby m event

With the settling of the M baby incident and the smooth development of test tube baby technology, American States began to improve various legislations to solve the problem of surrogacy

In the following decades, with the development of science and technology and the improvement of laws, surrogacy has become legal in many states of the United States

Nowadays, commercial surrogacy is legal in some states of the United States, India, Russia, Greece and Ukraine

In Britain, Belgium, the Netherlands and other countries, surrogacy is legal, but commercial surrogacy is not allowed

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